Plants Apparently Leafless or Leaves Scale–Like

Climbing Roots Absent, Leaves Absent or less than 4 mm Long

Scale Leaves Opposite, Milky Latex Present

Leaves or Scale Leaves Alternate, Milky Latex Absent


Fronds Bipinnate and Twining

Fronds Simple or Pinnate, Not Twining

Fronds Undivided or Pinnatifid

Sterile Nest Fronds Absent

Leaves Compound

Leaf Bases Sheathing The Stem or At Least Clasping and Almost Encircling It

Leaves Pinnate With Spines On Stems

Leaves Simple; Spines Absent

Leaves With Several Longitudinal Veins

Leaves With A Constriction In The Upper Part Of Leaf

Leaves Narrowed Into A Coiled Tendril

Leaves With One Main (Longitudinal) Vein

Leaves With 3 Or More Distinct Longitudinal Veins Extending Almost To Apex Of The Lamina With Tendrils And Prickles

Tendrils Present

Paired Tendrils Present At Base Of Most Leaves With Prickles

Without Prickles

Tendrils Borne Singly Opposite Some Leaves

Tendrils Absent

Leaves Alternate

Leaves With Numerous Longitudinal Veins

Leaves With 3 to 5 Main Longitudinal Veins, No Tendrils Or Prickles

Leaves Opposite or In Whorls of 3

Leaves Entire

Leaves Less Than 8cm Long

Leaves More Than 8cm Long

Leaves Alternate, Simple or Compound With Tendrils Opposite A Leaf


Leaves Simple Domatia Present

Leaves Palmately Compound With 3 to 7 Leaflets

Domatia Present; Margins Usually Entire

Alternate and Usually Entire But May Have Teeth

Domatia Absent With Tendrils Opposite Leaf

Leaflets 3; Margins Always Toothed

Leaves Pedately Compound With 5 Leaflets

Leaves Alternate, Simple or Compound With Tendrils Beside or In Leaf Axils

Glands On Petioles; Leaves Usually 3 or 5 Lobed, Margins Entire (Some Leaves Unlobed)

Glands Absent From Petioles

Leaves Simple, Lobed: Tendrils Branched Occurring Beside Leaf Axils

Leaves Alternate, Simple or Compound: Plants With Stinging or Bristly Hairs or Spines or Prickles On Stems and/or Petioles

Stems and Petioles With Stinging or Bristly Hairs; Spines and Prickles Absent

Leaves Simple; Stinging Hairs on Stems and Petioles

Leaves Compound; Bristly Hairs on Stems and Petioles; Leaflets 3 and Tendrils Absent.

Stems and Often Petioles With Spines or Prickles

Axillary Spines Present at Some Nodes or Paired Spines Present At Base of Petioles

Prickles Scattered On Stems and/or Petioles and Leaves

Leaves Simple

Leaves Palmately Compound, 3 or 5 Foliolate; Lower Surface Green

Leaves Pinnately Compound 3, 5 or 7 Leaflets; Lower Surface Green

Leaves Pinnately Compound 3, 5 or 7 Leaflets; Lower Surface Whitish To Grey

Leaves Alternate, Compound With 3 or More Leaflets or Pinnately Dissected

Leaves Compound With 3 ± Similar Leaflets

Stipules and Stipels Distinct On Young Growth

Stipules and Stipels Absent

Bristly Hairs Present On Stems, Petioles and Leaves

Leaves Pinnately Compound With More Than 3 Leaflets (± Similar In Shape)

Mature Leaflets Distinctly Hairy On Lower Surface

Mature Leaflets Hairless or Very Sparsely Hairy

Leaves Alternate, Simple, Palmately Veined (With 3 or More Veins Radiating From Base)

Leaves Regularly Toothed, Lobed or Angled (Palmately Lobed or 2 or 3 Lobed or 2 Angled or Hastate)

Margins Of Leaves Regularly Toothed

Margins of Leaves Lobed or Angled, Not Toothed

Leaves Entire or Almost So

Plants Climbing By Small Adventitious Roots

Plants Finely Hairy (At Least Young Shoots and Lower Surface Of Leaves Hairy)

Leaves Very Broad–Ovate To Circular–Cordate, Petiole More Than Half The Length Of The Lamina

Leaves Ovate To Broad–Ovate to Circular, Base Rounded To Cordate

Leaves Broad–Triangular ± Ovate, Lower Surface Green; Petiole 1 to 12 cm Long, Often With A Swelling At Apex

Leaves ± Circular To Reniform, Lower Surface Ashy Grey; Petiole 5 to 20 cm Long, Often With A Swelling At Apex

Leaves Alternate, Simple, Pinnately Veined

Leaves ± Triangular and Margins Toothed or Crisped (Minutely Wavy)

Plants Climbing By Small Aerial Roots

Lower Surface of Leaves ± Scabrous, Often With Small Teeth Towards Apex (Juveniles Toothed or Lobed)

Leaves With Distinct Translucent or Brown To Reddish Dots or Streaks

Leaves Mostly Less Than 5 cm Long

Margins Usually Entire

Leaves Mostly More Than 5 cm Long

Margins Regularly Toothed or Crenate

Pinnately Lobed

Leaves Opposite or Whorled, Compound With 2 or More Leaflets

Leaflets 3

Petioles Usually More Than 3 cm Long, Often Twining

Leaves With 5 to 17 Leaflets (Rarely 3 Leaflets); Leaves Pinnately Divided

Leaves Opposite or Whorled, 1–Foliolate or Simple: Plants Lacking Latex or Watery Sap

Spines, Prickles and Basal Glands Absent

Leaves With Numerous Minute Translucent Dots

Leaves Ovate To Lanceolate, Mature Leaves Hairless, Young Leaves and Stems With Simple Hairs

Leaves Elliptic To Oblong–Elliptic, With Scattered Rough Star hairs

Leaves With Margins Toothed, Crenate or ± Lobed

Leaves Of Each Opposite Pair Very Unequal In Size

Leaves Of Each Opposite Pair Of Similar Size

Leaves 1–Foliolate (Petioles Jointed A Little Above Base)

Margins Entire

Leaves Simple, Margins Entire

Domatia and Interpetiolar Stipules Present

Leaves Opposite or Whorled, Simple

Plants With Milky or Yellowish Latex or Watery Sap; Leaves With Basal Glands

Petioles and Stems Exuding Clear Watery or Yellowish Sap When Cut or Broken

Fully Expanded Leaves Softly and Finely Hairy, Petioles and Branchlets Densely Hairy

Fully Expanded Leaves Hairless or Finely Hairy Only On The Main Veins, Petioles and Branchlets Hairless

Leaves Rounded To Truncate At Base

Petioles and Stems Exuding Opaque Milky or Yellowish Milky Latex When Cut or Broken

Lower Surface Of Leaves Dull Whitish Green With A Dense Covering Of Minute Hairs

Stems Becoming Corky (Stems Whitish and Fissured)

Leaves Thick and Fleshy, Broad–Elliptic to ± Circular

Lower Surface of Leaves Hairless or Almost So (Especially Along Main Veins)

Leaves Broader, 1.5 to 3 Times As Long As Wide, Lateral and Net Veins Distinct

Leaves With 1 to 4 Basal Glands

Leaves with 5 to 20 Basal Glands

Lower Surface Of Leaves Softly Hairy

Leaves 1 to 2.5 Times As Long As Wide; Domatia Present

Latex White

Sap Yellowish

Leaves Opposite or Whorled, Simple With Milky or Yellowish Latex or Watery Sap But Without Basal Glands

Leaves Usually 5 to 13 cm Long, Opposite

Stems and Petioles With A Colourless or Yellowish Clear Sap; Stems Creeping Or Climbing By Adventitious Roots Along Stem

Adult Leaves Usually 4 to 24 cm Long, Juvenile Leaves 1 to 5 cm Long, Usually Only Juvenile Plants with Adventitious Roots

Adventitious Roots Absent

Leaves Hairy, Margins Entire

Hairs brownish

Leaves Hairless or Almost So, Margins Entire

Lateral and Net Veins Distinct On Both Surfaces, Becoming Raised On Upper Surface When Dried

Lateral and Net Veins Not Visible; Older Stems Corky

Leaves With 3 to 8 (Rarely 9) Pairs Of Main Lateral Veins

Net Veins Distinct or Obscure On Lower Surface; Not Prominently Raised When Dry